LEGAL AID REGULATIONS
CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
ARTICLE 1 – These Regulations are formulated to ensure that all citizens with financial constraints are provided with necessary legal services, and to improve and standardize the legal aid system.
ARTICLE 2 – In accordance with these Regulations, all eligible citizens are entitled to free legal services, such as legal consultation or representation and criminal defense.
ARTICLE 3 – Provision of legal aid is the responsibility of the government. All local governments above the county level must take active measures to promote legal aid services, provide financial support, and ensure that the legal aid system develops concurrently with economic and social development.
Special funds shall be allocated for the sole purpose of providing legal aid services and subject to regular supervision by financial and auditing authorities.
ARTICLE 4 – The judicial administration under the State Council shall be responsible for supervising and managing the national legal aid system, while the judicial administrations of local governments above the county level shall be responsible for supervising and managing the legal aid work within their jurisdictions.
Subject to the guidelines and regulations of all lawyers’ associations, the Chinese National Lawyers’ Association and all local lawyers’ associations shall support and assist the legal aid services provided in accordance with these Regulations.
ARTICLE 5 – The judicial administrations of the municipalities directly under the Central Government, municipalities with district jurisdictions, or county level governments shall determine the establishment of legal aid institutions based on actual needs.
Legal aid institutions shall be responsible for processing and reviewing applications for legal aid services, and for assigning or arranging lawyers to provide legal aid services for eligible citizens.
ARTICLE 6 – All lawyers shall fulfill the obligations of providing legal aid services in accordance with the Lawyers’ Law and these Regulations, providing professional and quality legal assistance to, and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of, legal aid recipients, subject to supervision by the appropriate lawyers’ associations and judicial administrations.
ARTICLE 7 – The state shall encourage donations to legal aid programs.
ARTICLE 8 – The state shall encourage and support social organizations such as community establishments and public institutions in providing with their own resources legal aid services to citizens with financial difficulties.
ARTICLE 9 – Organizations or individuals making outstanding contributions to legal aid services shall be recognized and rewarded by the related governments and/or judicial administrations.
联邦议会由国家元首 (总督)、上议院 (即参议院）和下议院 (即众议院) 组成，参议员是由总理推荐，总督任命，而众议
领导是加拿大选举署主席（Chief Electoral Officer）。
的结果会记录到“议会代表决议”(representation order) 中。1996年确定
不必赢得超过半数选票 (即绝对多数票) 就能当选。
的选举工作人员一般都会说两种官方语言。另外，投票站站长 (deputy returning officer) 可以聘
The Electoral System in Canada
Canada has a parliamentary system of government, based on that of the United Kingdom. The Canadian federal Parliament consists of the sovereign (represented by the Governor General), an upper house (the Senate), the members of which are appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and a lower house (the House of Commons), the members of which are chosen by the citizens of Canada through federal general elections.
Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency responsible for the conduct of federal elections, by-elections and referendums. It is headed by the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.
Representation in the House of Commons is based on geographical divisions known as electoral districts, constituencies or ridings. Each riding elects one member to the House of Commons, and the number of ridings is established through a formula set out in the Constitution. Riding boundaries are established by independent commissions, taking into account the population and social and economic links. New commissions are set up following each decennial (10-year) census to make any necessary revisions to existing boundaries, following criteria defined in the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act. The process of redefining electoral boundaries is called redistribution, and the results are recorded in a representation order. The number of ridings in 1996 was set at 301, and it was increased to 308 in 2003.
Canada’s electoral system is referred to as a "single-member plurality" or "first-past-the-post" system. In every electoral district, the candidate with the most votes wins a seat in the House of Commons and represents that riding as its Member of Parliament, or MP. This means that candidates need not receive more than 50 percent of the vote (an absolute majority) to be elected.
Any number of candidates may run for election in an electoral district, but each candidate may run in one electoral district only, either independently or under the banner of an eligible political party. Each party may endorse only one candidate per riding. Candidates who run for election without party affiliation may be designated as "independent" or as having "no affiliation."
A political party is a group of people who together establish a constitution and by-laws, elect a leader and other officers, and endorse candidates for election to the House of Commons. To obtain the right to put the party name on the ballot, under the names of the candidates it endorses, a political party must register with the Chief Electoral Officer. At the November 27, 2000, general election, there were 11 registered political parties operating at the federal level in Canada, including Bloc Quebecois, Canadian Action Party, Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, Communist Party of Canada, Liberal Party of Canada, Marijuana Party, Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada, Natural Law Party of Canada, New Democratic Party, Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, The Green Party of Canada
After an election, the party with the most elected representatives usually becomes the governing party. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister and chooses people (usually members of Parliament of his or her party) to head the various government departments. The party with the second largest number of MPs is called the "Official Opposition." All the elected candidates have a seat in the House of Commons, where they vote on draft legislation (called Bills) and thus have an influence on government policy.
Election officers must be politically neutral: they may not favour one political party or candidate over any other. Special precautions ensure that no political leanings can affect the administration of electoral events. All election workers must take an oath to uphold voters’ rights and the secrecy of the vote, and to perform their duties without favouritism.
Each candidate can have representatives present on the election day during both the voting and the counting of the votes to verify that everything is carried out fairly and properly.
Voting in Canada is by secret ballot. The security of the ballot is paramount, and the system makes it impossible to discover how a specific voter has marked her or his ballot. It is, in fact, illegal to intimidate an elector into voting a particular way, or to attempt to force someone to reveal how he or she voted or is going to vote.
All citizens have the right to a voice in choosing their parliamentary representatives. Canada’s electoral law requires the Chief Electoral Officer to inform the public about the system and about individual rights under that system, and to remove obstacles that may make voting difficult for some.
During an election, Elections Canada informs Canadians about their right to vote, how to get on the National Register of Electors and the voters list, and where and how they can vote. Its public information activities include news releases, advertisements in newspapers and on television and radio, brochures, posters, videos, a toll-free telephone enquiries centre, a Web site, and meetings with community and ethnocultural groups.
Wherever possible, election officers at polling stations speak both official languages. In addition, a deputy returning officer can appoint and swear in an interpreter to help communicate with a voter.
With voting hours staggered across the country’s six time zones, election results are available at just about the same time everywhere in Canada.
4、聘任期限为 年 月 日至 年 月 日。
A Contract for Employment of Part Time Teachers
Whereas XXX (hereinafter referred to as “Party A”) wishes to offer ________________________ (hereinafter referred to as “Party B) an employment as a part time teacher, and
Whereas this Contract is entered into by and between the Parties through amicable negotiations to define the obligations and responsibilities of each Party as follows.
I. Party A’s Obligations and Responsibilities during the Contract Term
Acting in compliance with the legal provisions concerning the rights of teachers as defined in such laws and regulations as the “Law of Education” and the “Teachers Law” and making efforts to assist Party B in solving problems that may disturb his/her work and life based on the principle of respecting knowledge and professional talents.
Providing Party B with a textbook and a set of teaching materials based on his/her written application on teaching affairs.
Inviting Party B to attend regular meetings of teachers and listening to his/her comments and suggestions on the teaching and management affairs of the school, and encouraging him/her to participate in the democratic process of school management.
Assisting Party B in improving his/her teaching by providing him/her with feedback information collected from occasional sitting in his/her class and from parents meetings.
Generally, the teachers shall be encouraged to participate in research projects and discussions on teaching to improve their professional abilities.
Awarding selected teachers of excellence with both moral incentives and material rewards by an annual selection and evaluation of Teachers of Excellence, Winners for Best Course Designs, and Winners for Best Teaching Performance.
Paying on time the monthly remuneration at a rate of 350 Yuan (RMB)/3 teaching hours (per course).
I. Party B’s Obligations and Responsibilities during the Contract Term
Abiding by the Constitution, applicable laws and professional ethics and completing his/her teaching tasks with creativity and a commitment to art teaching, while setting an example of virtue and learning.
Participating actively in the teachers meetings and research projects on teaching organized by Party A, and conducting his/her teaching in a professional and responsible way with a solid knowledge of the teaching requirements and a good organization of each class based on a careful planning of syllabus before class and an elaborate demonstration during class so that the students will be able to learn good and proper art skills.
Making efforts to continuously improve his/her professional abilities and personal qualities to meet the changing educational and social requirements. Depending on the students structure, bilingual teaching shall be allowed provided that applicable teaching certificates are verified.
Caring for and respecting the students with a focus on both their knowledge learning and moral development, and staying ready to help the students, particularly those with
difficulties in their studies.
Educating the students to keep an awareness of public property and environment protection, as well as a good behavior during class breaks, and making it an obligation to ensure the students safety on campus by meeting the students with their parents before school and handing them over to their parents after school.
Observing the school rules and regulations. (See details in the attached “Rules and Regulations Concerning the Teachers Professional Duties”, or “Teachers Duties”).
Submitting to Party A one month’s notice to resign for special reasons before the Contract expires.
Filing for and paying the applicable personal taxes according to the government regulations.
III. Matters that Both Parties Shall Stand By:
Should Party A fail to fulfill its obligations, Party B may raise questions and doubts, or even quit the position.
Should Party B fail to fulfill his/her duties in teaching with desirable results, or be proved incompetent for the position, or breach this Contract, or take away students without permission, Party A may remedy the situation by deducting part of his/her pay or dismissing him/her.
Party A may dismiss Party B any time should Party B fail to follow or change the teaching schedule without permission and, consequently, affect the normal progress of teaching and/or the school reputation.
In the event of a failure to fulfill this Contract by Party B as a consequence of uncontrollable incidents, or in case of any matters not covered in and by this Contract,
the Parties may seek a resolution through discussions and/or additional clauses concluded separately.
The employment is valid for a term as of this date of _____________________ and ending on _______________________.
This Contract has been executed in 2 (two) copies, with one copy for each Party, and shall come into effect upon the signing by both Parties.
Party A: ____________________________________ Dated:_____________________________
Party B: ____________________________________ Dated:_____________________________
Shanghai Basic Facts
Geographic Location and Natural Condition
Shanghai is situated at 31