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成功案例

点击数:6111    更新时间:2011-10-12 10:34:58    收藏此页


                                                     法律援助条例( 2003-08-01)  
                                                                第一章  总则   
第一条  为了保 障经济困难的公民获得必要的法律服务,促进和 规范法律援助工作,制定本条例。   
第二条  符合本 条例规定的公民,可以依 照本条例获得法律咨询、代理、刑事辩 护等无偿法律服务。   
第三条  法律援 助是政府的责任,县级以 上人民政府应当采取积极措施推动法律援助工作,为法律 援助提供财政支持,保障法 律援助事业与经济、社会协调发展。    法律援 助经费应当专款专用,接受财政、审计部门的监督。   
第四条  国务院 司法行政部门监督管理全国的法律援助工作。县级以 上地方各级人民政府司法行政部门监督管理本行政区域的法律援助工作。    中华全 国律师协会和地方律师协会应当按照律师协会章程对依据本条例实施的法律援助工作予以协助。   
第五条  直辖市、设区的 市或者县级人民政府司法行政部门根据需要确定本行政区域的法律援助机构。    法律援 助机构负责受理、审查法律援助申请,指派或者安排人员为符合本 条例规定的公民提供法律援助。   
第六条  律师应 当依照律师法和本条例的规定履行法律援助义务,为受援 人提供符合标准的法律服务,依法维 护受援人的合法权益,接受律 师协会和司法行政部门的监督。   
第七条  国家鼓 励社会对法律援助活动提供捐助。   
第八条  国家支 持和鼓励社会团体、事业单 位等社会组织利用自身资源为经济困难的公民提供法律援助。   
第九条  对在法 律援助工作中作出突出贡献的组织和个人,有关的人民政府、司法行 政部门应当给予表彰、奖励。                         
                                                            
                                      LEGAL AID REGULATIONS


CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

ARTICLE 1 – These Regulations are formulated to ensure that all citizens with financial constraints are provided with necessary legal services, and to improve and standardize the legal aid system.
ARTICLE 2 – In accordance with these Regulations, all eligible citizens are entitled to free legal services, such as legal consultation or representation and criminal defense.
ARTICLE 3 – Provision of legal aid is the responsibility of the government. All local governments above the county level must take active measures to promote legal aid services, provide financial support, and ensure that the legal aid system develops concurrently with economic and social development.
   Special funds shall be allocated for the sole purpose of providing legal aid services and subject to regular supervision by financial and auditing authorities.
ARTICLE 4 – The judicial administration under the State Council shall be responsible for supervising and managing the national legal aid system, while the judicial administrations of local governments above the county level shall be responsible for supervising and managing the legal aid work within their jurisdictions.
   Subject to the guidelines and regulations of all lawyers’ associations, the Chinese National Lawyers’ Association and all local lawyers’ associations shall support and assist the legal aid services provided in accordance with these Regulations.
ARTICLE 5 – The judicial administrations of the municipalities directly under the Central Government, municipalities with district jurisdictions, or county level governments shall determine the establishment of legal aid institutions based on actual needs.
   Legal aid institutions shall be responsible for processing and reviewing applications for legal aid services, and for assigning or arranging lawyers to provide legal aid services for eligible citizens.
ARTICLE 6 – All lawyers shall fulfill the obligations of providing legal aid services in accordance with the Lawyers’ Law and these Regulations, providing professional and quality legal assistance to, and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of, legal aid recipients, subject to supervision by the appropriate lawyers’ associations and judicial administrations.
ARTICLE 7 – The state shall encourage donations to legal aid programs.
ARTICLE 8 – The state shall encourage and support social organizations such as community establishments and public institutions in providing with their own resources legal aid services to citizens with financial difficulties.
ARTICLE 9 – Organizations or individuals making outstanding contributions to legal aid services shall be recognized and rewarded by the related governments and/or judicial administrations.



                                                   加拿大选举制度


  加拿大 的政府议会制度沿袭英国政体。加拿大 联邦议会由国家元首 (总督)、上议院 (即参议院)和下议院 (即众议院) 组成,参议员是由总理推荐,总督任命,而众议 员则由加拿大公民通过联邦大选选举产生。
  负责联邦大选、补缺选 举和全民公投程序的 “加拿大选举署”是一个非党派的机构,其最高 领导是加拿大选举署主席(Chief Electoral Officer)。
  众议院 的代表席位是按地理区域(即选区)来确定的,每个选 区选出一名众议院议员。选区的 数量依据宪法规定的计算方法决定,而选区 的界限则由独立的委员会依据人口多少以及社会和经济现状来划定。在每十 年一次的人口普查之后,通常会 成立新的委员会,依据“选区界限调整法案”规定的 标准对现有选区的界限进行必要的调整。重新确 定选区界限的过程称作“区界再划定”(redistribution),调整后 的结果会记录到“议会代表决议”(representation order) 中。1996年确定 全国选区总数是301个,2003年增至308个。
  加拿大的选举制是“一票多数制”,亦即“简单多数票当选制”。在任一 选区获得最多选票的候选人赢得众议院议席,成为代 表该选区的国会议员(简称MP)。也就是说,候选人 不必赢得超过半数选票 (即绝对多数票) 就能当选。
  在一个 选区参加竞选的候选人数是不限定的,但每个 候选人只能在一个选区参选,既可以 作为独立候选人参选,也可以 代表某一合法政党参选。每个政 党只能批准一名候选人参加一个选区的竞选。不代表 任何党派参加竞选的候选人被称作“独立”或“无党派”候选人。
  所谓政党,就是由 一群人组成的团体,他们共 同通过党纲及规章,选出党魁 (领袖)和党内其他负责人,并提名 候选人参加众议员竞选。参加竞 选的政党必须在选举署主席处登记后,才有权 在选票上在其所支持的候选人姓名后面填写政党的名称。在2000年11 月27日举行的大选中,共有11个政党 登记参加加拿大联邦大选,包括魁人党(魁北克政团党),加拿大行动党,加拿大改革保守联盟,加拿大共产党,加拿大自由党,大麻党,加拿大马列主义党,加拿大自然法则党,新民主党,加拿大进步保守党,加拿大绿党。
  在通常情况下,大选后 赢得最多议席的政党即成为执政党,该党的 领袖成为政府总理,由总理挑选议员(通常是 自己党内的议员)出任政府各部部长(组成内阁)。获得议 席第二多的政党称为“官方反对党”。所有当 选的议员都在众议院占有一个议席,他们投 票表决立法草案(又称议案),从而对 政府决策施加影响。
  负责选 举工作的官员必须在政治上保持中立,不能偏 袒任何一个政党或候选人。有特别 的措施来防止任何政治倾向对选举工作的管理产生影响。所有选 举工作人员都必须宣誓保证维护选民的权利,保守选票的秘密,并且毫 不偏袒地履行职责。在选举日,每个候 选人都可委派自己的代表监督投票和计票过程,以确保 所有环节的进展公平合理。
  加拿大 采用无记名投票,因此保 证选票的安全至关重要,选举制 度可确保任何选民的投票结果不会泄露。事实上,威迫选 民投票给某个候选人,或者意 图强迫选民透露其已投选票或将投选票的内容,均属违法行为。
  所有公 民都有权表明选择议会代表的意见。加拿大 的选举法要求选举署主席让公众了解选举制度和该制度赋予个人的权利,并排除 可能会造成某些选民投票困难的障碍。
  在选举过程中,加拿大 选举署会通告加拿大公民如何行使自己的选举权,如何将 自己的资料登记到全国选民登记册和投票人名单,以及投票方法和地点。该机构 的宣传途径包括新闻报道、报纸广告、电视广告、电台广告、宣传册、海报、录像带、免费电话询问中心、网站,以及与 社区和族裔文化团体会面等。
  只要有可能,投票站 的选举工作人员一般都会说两种官方语言。另外,投票站站长 (deputy returning officer) 可以聘 用一名译员协助与选民交流,该译员 须经宣誓才能就职。
  加拿大 六个时区的投票时间有所不同,但选举 结果大约同时在全国公布。


                                            The Electoral System in Canada


Canada has a parliamentary system of government, based on that of the United Kingdom. The Canadian federal Parliament consists of the sovereign (represented by the Governor General), an upper house (the Senate), the members of which are appointed by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and a lower house (the House of Commons), the members of which are chosen by the citizens of Canada through federal general elections.
  Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency responsible for the conduct of federal elections, by-elections and referendums. It is headed by the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.
  Representation in the House of Commons is based on geographical divisions known as electoral districts, constituencies or ridings. Each riding elects one member to the House of Commons, and the number of ridings is established through a formula set out in the Constitution. Riding boundaries are established by independent commissions, taking into account the population and social and economic links. New commissions are set up following each decennial (10-year) census to make any necessary revisions to existing boundaries, following criteria defined in the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act. The process of redefining electoral boundaries is called redistribution, and the results are recorded in a representation order. The number of ridings in 1996 was set at 301, and it was increased to 308 in 2003.
  Canada’s electoral system is referred to as a "single-member plurality" or "first-past-the-post" system. In every electoral district, the candidate with the most votes wins a seat in the House of Commons and represents that riding as its Member of Parliament, or MP. This means that candidates need not receive more than 50 percent of the vote (an absolute majority) to be elected.
  Any number of candidates may run for election in an electoral district, but each candidate may run in one electoral district only, either independently or under the banner of an eligible political party. Each party may endorse only one candidate per riding. Candidates who run for election without party affiliation may be designated as "independent" or as having "no affiliation."
  A political party is a group of people who together establish a constitution and by-laws, elect a leader and other officers, and endorse candidates for election to the House of Commons. To obtain the right to put the party name on the ballot, under the names of the candidates it endorses, a political party must register with the Chief Electoral Officer. At the November 27, 2000, general election, there were 11 registered political parties operating at the federal level in Canada, including Bloc Quebecois, Canadian Action Party, Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, Communist Party of Canada, Liberal Party of Canada, Marijuana Party, Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada, Natural Law Party of Canada, New Democratic Party, Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, The Green Party of Canada
  After an election, the party with the most elected representatives usually becomes the governing party. The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister and chooses people (usually members of Parliament of his or her party) to head the various government departments. The party with the second largest number of MPs is called the "Official Opposition." All the elected candidates have a seat in the House of Commons, where they vote on draft legislation (called Bills) and thus have an influence on government policy.
  Election officers must be politically neutral: they may not favour one political party or candidate over any other. Special precautions ensure that no political leanings can affect the administration of electoral events. All election workers must take an oath to uphold voters’ rights and the secrecy of the vote, and to perform their duties without favouritism.
  Each candidate can have representatives present on the election day during both the voting and the counting of the votes to verify that everything is carried out fairly and properly.
  Voting in Canada is by secret ballot. The security of the ballot is paramount, and the system makes it impossible to discover how a specific voter has marked her or his ballot. It is, in fact, illegal to intimidate an elector into voting a particular way, or to attempt to force someone to reveal how he or she voted or is going to vote.
  All citizens have the right to a voice in choosing their parliamentary representatives. Canada’s electoral law requires the Chief Electoral Officer to inform the public about the system and about individual rights under that system, and to remove obstacles that may make voting difficult for some.
  During an election, Elections Canada informs Canadians about their right to vote, how to get on the National Register of Electors and the voters list, and where and how they can vote. Its public information activities include news releases, advertisements in newspapers and on television and radio, brochures, posters, videos, a toll-free telephone enquiries centre, a Web site, and meetings with community and ethnocultural groups.
  Wherever possible, election officers at polling stations speak both official languages. In addition, a deputy returning officer can appoint and swear in an interpreter to help communicate with a voter.
  With voting hours staggered across the country’s six time zones, election results are available at just about the same time everywhere in Canada.



                                                 聘任兼职教师合同


 XXX学校(甲方)诚聘 _____________________(乙方)任兼职教师,双方经友好协商,明确各 自的义务和职责,特订此合同。
 一、甲方在 合同期内的义务和职责:
 1、遵守《教育法》和《教师法》等法律、法规中 有关教师权利的规定。尊重知识,尊重人才,关心乙 方的工作和生活,尽力协 助解决乙方的困难。
 2、根据乙方的书面申请,提供教 材及有关教学资料一套。
 3、定期召开教师会议,听取乙方对学校教学、管理工 作的意见和建议,支持乙 方参与学校的民主管理。
 4、不定期听课,召开学生家长座谈会,向乙方反馈意见,以帮助 乙方改进教学质量;组织教 师参加教学研讨活动,提高教师的业务水平。
 5、每年一 次评选优秀教师,优秀教 案评选及教学大奖赛,对优秀 教师给予精神和物质奖励。
 6、每月按 时支付当月授课费。
 二、乙方应 履行的的义务和职责:
 1、遵守宪法、法律和职业道德,为人师表,热爱教育事业,创造性完成教学任务。
 2、积极参 加甲方召开的教师会议和教研活动,隐藏,认真钻研教材。课前备好教案,上课认真做好示范,精心组 织好每堂课教学。
 3、不断提 高业务水平和自身素质,以适应 不断发展的教育形势和社会需求。根据学生具体情况,可进行双语教学,应出示 该类教学的相关证书。
 4、关心爱护学生,尊重学生人格,教书育人,为学生服务,热心帮 助学习有困难的学生。
 5、教育学 生爱护公共财产及环境卫生。有义务 保护学生在校内的安全,课前课 后做好学生与家长的交接工作。
 6、遵守学 校的各项规章制度。(详见附件“关于教 师的教学规章制度”)
 7、有特殊 情况需中途辞职的,应提前 一个月通知甲方。
 8、按国家规定,自觉申报、缴纳个人所得税。
 三、双方必 须共同信守的事宜:
 1、甲方如不能履行义务,乙方可以提出质疑,甚至辞职。
 2、乙方在 教学过程中如不能尽职,教学效果不好,不能胜任或违反合同,甲方可 根据需要扣薪或解聘。
 3、甲方因 遇不可抗拒因素造成不能履行合同或本合同未尽事宜,双方应 协商解决或另签补充条款。
 4、聘任期限为       年    月    日至        年     月    日。
 本合同一式二份,甲乙双方各执一份,自签字日起即生效。


                        A Contract for Employment of Part Time Teachers


Whereas XXX (hereinafter referred to as “Party A”) wishes to offer ________________________ (hereinafter referred to as “Party B) an employment as a part time teacher, and


Whereas this Contract is entered into by and between the Parties through amicable negotiations to define the obligations and responsibilities of each Party as follows.
I. Party A’s Obligations and Responsibilities during the Contract Term
   Acting in compliance with the legal provisions concerning the rights of teachers as defined in such laws and regulations as the “Law of Education” and the “Teachers Law” and making efforts to assist Party B in solving problems that may disturb his/her work and life based on the principle of respecting knowledge and professional talents.
   Providing Party B with a textbook and a set of teaching materials based on his/her written application on teaching affairs.
   Inviting Party B to attend regular meetings of teachers and listening to his/her comments and suggestions on the teaching and management affairs of the school, and encouraging him/her to participate in the democratic process of school management.
   Assisting Party B in improving his/her teaching by providing him/her with feedback information collected from occasional sitting in his/her class and from parents meetings.  
  Generally, the teachers shall be encouraged to participate in research projects and discussions on teaching to improve their professional abilities.
   Awarding selected teachers of excellence with both moral incentives and material rewards by an annual selection and evaluation of Teachers of Excellence, Winners for Best Course Designs, and Winners for Best Teaching Performance.
   Paying on time the monthly remuneration at a rate of 350 Yuan (RMB)/3 teaching hours (per course).
I. Party B’s Obligations and Responsibilities during the Contract Term
   Abiding by the Constitution, applicable laws and professional ethics and completing his/her teaching tasks with creativity and a commitment to art teaching, while setting an example of virtue and learning.
   Participating actively in the teachers meetings and research projects on teaching organized by Party A, and conducting his/her teaching in a professional and responsible way with a solid knowledge of the teaching requirements and a good organization of each class based on a careful planning of syllabus before class and an elaborate demonstration during class so that the students will be able to learn good and proper art skills.
   Making efforts to continuously improve his/her professional abilities and personal qualities to meet the changing educational and social requirements. Depending on the students structure, bilingual teaching shall be allowed provided that applicable teaching certificates are verified.
   Caring for and respecting the students with a focus on both their knowledge learning and moral development, and staying ready to help the students, particularly those with
difficulties in their studies.
   Educating the students to keep an awareness of public property and environment protection, as well as a good behavior during class breaks, and making it an obligation to ensure the students safety on campus by meeting the students with their parents before school and handing them over to their parents after school.
   Observing the school rules and regulations. (See details in the attached “Rules and Regulations Concerning the Teachers Professional Duties”, or “Teachers Duties”).
   Submitting to Party A one month’s notice to resign for special reasons before the Contract expires.
   Filing for and paying the applicable personal taxes according to the government regulations.
III. Matters that Both Parties Shall Stand By:
   Should Party A fail to fulfill its obligations, Party B may raise questions and doubts, or even quit the position.
   Should Party B fail to fulfill his/her duties in teaching with desirable results, or be proved incompetent for the position, or breach this Contract, or take away students without permission, Party A may remedy the situation by deducting part of his/her pay or dismissing him/her.
   Party A may dismiss Party B any time should Party B fail to follow or change the teaching schedule without permission and, consequently, affect the normal progress of teaching and/or the school reputation.
   In the event of a failure to fulfill this Contract by Party B as a consequence of uncontrollable incidents, or in case of any matters not covered in and by this Contract,
the Parties may seek a resolution through discussions and/or additional clauses concluded separately.
   The employment is valid for a term as of this date of _____________________ and ending on _______________________.
This Contract has been executed in 2 (two) copies, with one copy for each Party, and shall come into effect upon the signing by both Parties.
Party A: ____________________________________ Dated:_____________________________
Party B: ____________________________________ Dated:_____________________________
 


                                                          上海概览
自然地理
 地理位置
 上海位于北纬31度14分,东经121度29分,地处太平洋西岸,亚洲大陆东沿,长江三角洲前缘,东濒东海,南临杭州湾,西接江苏、浙江两省,北界长江入海口,长江与东海在此连接。上海正 当我国南北弧形海岸线中部,交通便利,腹地广阔,地理位置优越,是一个 良好的江海港口。
 气候
 上海属 北亚热带季风性气候,四季分明,日照充分,雨量充沛。上海气候温和湿润,春秋较短,冬夏较长。2006年,全年平均气温18.4℃,日照1638.2小时,降雨量1042.6毫米。全年70%左右的雨量集中在5至9月的汛期。
 土地面积
 2006年末,上海全市面积6340.5平方公里,占全国总面积的0.06%,南北长约120公里,东西宽约100公里。境内辖有崇明、长兴、横沙三个岛屿,其中崇明岛面积1041.21平方公里,是我国的第三大岛。
 水文
 上海地区河湖众多,水网密布,水资源丰富,是著名的江南水乡,境内水域面积697平方公里,相当于全市总面积的11%。上海河 网大多属黄浦江水系,主要有 黄浦江及其支流苏州河、川扬河、淀浦河等。黄浦江源自太湖,全长113公里,流经市区,江道宽度300~770米,平均360米。终年不冻,是上海 的水上交通要道。苏州河上海境内段长54公里,河道平均宽度45米。上海的 湖泊集中在与江、浙交界的西部洼地,最大湖泊为淀山湖,面积为62平方公里。
 地势
 上海境 内除西南部有少数丘陵山脉外,全为坦荡低平的平原,是长江 三角洲冲积平原的一部分,平均海拔高度为4米左右。陆地地 势总体呈现由东向西低微倾斜。大金山 为上海境内最高点,海拔高度103.4米。
人口
 由于大 量人口迁入和外来流动人口增长迅速,上海人 口总量规模不断扩大。上海开埠时人口不足10万;至1949年时为520万;至2006末,全市户 籍人口已增加到1368.1万人,占全国总人口的1%。全市按 户籍人口计算的人口密度为每平方公里2157人。2006年末,全市常住人口为1815万人,其中外来常住人口467万人。
 人口自然变动
 上海是 全国第一个出现人口自然变动负增长的省级行政区,人口自然增长率自1993年开始已连续14年保持负增长。2006年,全市户 籍人口出生率为6‰,死亡率为7.2‰,自然增长率为-1.2‰。
 人口年龄构成
 据2005年1%人口抽样调查,在上海常住人口中,0-14岁的人口为158万人,占总人口的8.9%;15-64岁的人口为1408万人,占总人口的79.1%;65岁及以上的人口为 212万人,占总人口的11.9%。与2000年第五 次人口普查相比,0-14岁人口比重下降了3.4个百分点,65岁及以 上人口比重上升了0.5个百分点。
 人口文化素质
 上海人 口整体文化素质不断提高。据2005年1%人口抽样调查,在上海6岁及以上常住人口中,具有大 专及以上文化程度的人口所占比重达到18.1%,与2000年第五 次人口普查相比提高6.7个百分点;高中文化程度人口占24.8%,提高1个百分点;初中及 小学文化程度人口占51.6%,比重下降了6.3个百分点。2006年,上海义 务教育入学率达到99.9%,高中阶段入学率达到99%,高考录取率达到81.7%。


                                             Shanghai Basic Facts
Geographic Location and Natural Condition
Geographic Location
 Shanghai is situated at 31


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